Challenged by migration: Europe's options

Amelie Constant & Klaus F. Zimmermann

This paper examines the migration and labour mobility in the European Union and elaborates on their importance for the existence of the EU. Against all measures of success, the current public debate seems to suggest that the political consensus that migration is beneficial is broken. This comes with a crisis of European institutions in general. Migration and labour mobility have not been at the origin of the perceived cultural shift. The EU in its current form and ambition could perfectly survive or collapse even if it solves its migration challenge. But it will most likely collapse, if it fails to solve the mobility issue by not preserving free internal labour mobility and not establishing a joint external migration policy.

Keywords: labour mobility, migration, European Union, refugees

JEL Classification: D01, D02, D61, F02, F16, F22, F66, J6